How to reverse the ids in a mysql table column without breaking primary key constraint?

Let me explain the problem scenario: Let us assume we have a table with 4 columns in it out of which 1 is PRIMARY column and rest 3 contain some data.

What we want to do is to reverse the primary key IDs for that data keeping the rest of data intact. It is like shifting the first row to end and moving last row to starting.

Initial Data

1jacobwhateverhow to reverse
3nathanwhosoeverisnathanids in mysql table column
4jagmohanidontknowjagmohanwithout breaking
8monicaiamsexyprimary key constraint
9batmanidontexistinrealworldi am batman

Data after update

9jacobwhatever how to reverse
8nathanwhosoeverisnathan ids in mysql table column
4jagmohanidontknowjagmohan without breaking
3monicaiamsexy primary key constraint
1batman idontexistinrealworld i am batman

Dude, you are just reversing the column, what is so tough in this?

So, this seems simple to reverse an array if isolated by key “id“. But you have to understand that this column is the primary key. So if you run a command to change id for “jacob” to “9“. It will give you error: “Duplicate entry for id 9

So here is my proposed solution, I start with pair of first and last row and then swap them. Then swap second and second last row. and So on…

If total rows are odd, we will be left with 1 row which does not need correction because it will already be the middle row.

If total rows are even, we would swap middle two rows too.

Here is my solution in PHP

$ai=12720; //can be any high int which does not exist in column `id` yet
$q="select id,email from table_name where `possible_group_id`=$possible_group_id order by id asc";
echo "start transaction;<br>";
foreach($row_collection as $k=>$v)
    if($k < floor($size/2)){
    echo 'UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`='.$ai.' WHERE `email`="'.$row_collection[$size-$k-1][1].'";<br>';
    echo 'UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`='.$v[2].' WHERE `email`="'.$v[1].'";<br>';
    echo 'UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`='.$row_collection[$k][0].' WHERE `email`="'.$row_collection[$size-$k-1][1].'";<br>';}
    else break;
echo "commit;<br>";

It would output this:

start transaction;
UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`=12720 WHERE `email`="idontexistinrealworld ";
UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`=9 WHERE `email`="whatever";
UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`=1 WHERE `email`="idontexistinrealworld ";
UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`=12720 WHERE `email`="iamsexy";
UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`=8 WHERE `email`="whosoeverisnathan";
UPDATE `table_name` SET `id`=3 WHERE `email`="iamsexy";

Some of the most important SQL commands.

SQL, Structured Query Language, is a programming language designed to manage data stored in relational databases. SQL operates through simple, declarative statements. This keeps data accurate and secure, and it helps maintain the integrity of databases, regardless of size.

Most of the actions you need to perform on a database are done with SQL statements.

SQL commands are grouped into four major categories depending on their functionality:

  • Data Definition Language (DDL)
  • Data Manipulation Language (DML)
  • Transaction Control Language (TCL)
  • Data Control Language (DCL)



SELECT column_name 
FROM table_name;

SELECT statements are used to fetch data from a database (
extracts data from a database ). Every query will begin with SELECT.


ALTER TABLE table_name 
ADD column_name datatype;

ALTER TABLE lets you add columns to a table in a database.
Modifies a table.


SELECT column_name,
    WHEN condition THEN 'Result_1'
    WHEN condition THEN 'Result_2'
    ELSE 'Result_3'
FROM table_name;

CASE statements are used to create different outputs (usually in the SELECT statement). It is SQL’s way of handling if-then logic.


CREATE TABLE table_name (
  column_1 datatype, 
  column_2 datatype, 
  column_3 datatype

CREATE TABLE creates a new table in the database. It allows you to specify the name of the table and the name of each column in the table.

We have an entire article on creating tables in MySQL.


INSERT INTO table_name (column_1, column_2, column_3) 
VALUES (value_1, 'value_2', value_3);

INSERT statements are used to add a new row to a table.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name operator value;

WHERE is a clause that filters the result set to include only rows where the specified condition is true.


UPDATE table_name
SET some_column = some_value
WHERE some_column = some_value;

UPDATE statements allow you to edit rows in a table.


SELECT column_name(s)
FROM table_name
WHERE column_1 = value_1
  AND column_2 = value_2;

AND is an operator that combines two conditions. Both conditions must be true for the row to be included in the result set.


SELECT column_name
FROM table_name
WHERE column_name = value_1
   OR column_name = value_2;

OR is an operator that filters the result set to only include rows where either condition is true.

These were the most common and basic SQL commands. There are many more commands in SQL.

Thank You.

Creating a table in PhpMyAdmin Xampp server.

Hello People.

In this post we will discuss that how you can create a table in phpmyadmin xampp server for your php project.

Before creating a table first you must create a database, because without database you can not create a table.

steps to create a table in phpmyadmin.

  • Start your Xampp server and open the following link in your browser.
    localhost/phpmyadmin . Now click on the New button.
  • Give name to your database and hit create button. As shown in the image below.

Our database has been created and now we can start creating the table.

  • Click on the database that you just created in the previous step. Then give name to your table and specify the number of columns under the structure menu.
  • Next you just need to fill your table with the details of your project.

You can also create table using MySql query. For that go to the SQL menu and and write your query. If your query is correct the table will be created. An example is shared below.

CREATE TABLE persons (
    LastName varchar(255) NOT NULL,
    FirstName varchar(255),
    Address varchar(255),
    phone varchar(70) NOT NULL UNIQUE

So, that’s all for now.

Thank You.

Connection timeout with MySQL database.

MySQL disconnects automatically after some time.

If you experience MySQL timeouts, it could be due to heavy or very long MySQL queries.

You can try using mysql_reconnect command before every query, and it should be fine.

MySQL server timeout can occur for many reasons but most commonly it is caused by either an application bug, a network timeout issue, or due to the MySQL server restarting.

These steps could solve the issue. (By setting no time to MySQl.)

  • Edit your my.cnf (MySQL config file)
sudo nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf

  • Add the timeout configuration and adjust it to fit your server.
wait_timeout = 28800
interactive_timeout = 28800
  • Save the changes (CTRL + X , Y , ENTER)
  • Restart MySQL
sudo service mysql restart

The new changes will be applied once it restarts. Hope this will help you.

Thank You.

How to repair a MySQL database?

Hello! Good to see you.

This is going to be a very important article because we are about to discuss  “How to repair a MySQL database?”

Why repair MySQL Database?

Databases can become corrupted for any number of reasons, from software defects to hardware issues.

If this occurs, you can try to repair the database. Wondering how to do it? Just follow this article.


Let’s see how to repair MySQL database through Linux and Windows command line.

Repair MySQL Database through Windows command line.


  • Log in to your Windows VPS using Remote Desktop.
  • Go to Start and locate the Command Prompt. Right-click Command Prompt and select Run as Administrator option.
  • At windows command prompt navigate to MySQL bin directory as follows.
    cd C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin  //  Replace your MySQL bin directory path here.
  • Run the following command to start the MySQL prompt.
    mysql -u root -p
  • Enter MySQL root password when you are being asked.
  • You will see MySQL prompt appearing. Now, to display all databases, type following command at MySQL prompt:
    show databases;
  • Enter the following command to repair MySQL database.
    mysqlcheck -r [database] // Replace database name with your database name.

Repair MySQL Database through Linux Terminal.


  • Login to your Linux VPS using Secure Shell (SSH) and connect to MySQL from the command line.
    mysql -uUsername -p // Replace Username with your username.
  • Enter MySQL user password and hit Enter. You will see MySQL prompt appearing. Now, in order to display all databases, type following command at MySQL prompt.
    show databases;
  • mysqlcheck enables you to check databases without stopping the entire MySQL service. -r argument is used to repair the corrupted tables. mysqlcheck utility efficiently works on both MyISAM and InnoDB database engines. Enter the following command to repair MySQL database.
    mysqlcheck -r [database] // Replace database name with your database name.


So, we covered this issue for both Windows and Linux.

Lastly please check our other articles on various topics, that we tried to address.

Thank You.

How to remove all tables from MySQL Database?

Connect to your mysql host and select the database to be used
example: use notfavoritedb; where notfavoritedb is your database name, and then enter the sql commands given below:

SET @tables = NULL;
SELECT GROUP_CONCAT('`', table_name, '`') INTO @tables
  FROM information_schema.tables
  WHERE table_schema = (SELECT DATABASE());
SELECT IFNULL(@tables,'dummy') INTO @tables;

SET @tables = CONCAT('DROP TABLE IF EXISTS ', @tables);
PREPARE stmt FROM @tables;

Reference: StackOverflow

[Forgot Password] [Can’t Log In] How to reset WordPress admin password without sending reset email?

So, admit it. We put really strong passwords and then we forget them.
And you end up being locked out of your own website.

So here is how you can reset it quickly.
Go to your hosting control panel and then go to phpMyAdmin if available.

Look into the database which is being used for your wordpress installation and click on Users table

Inside users table, find the row responsible for your admin account. (check the user_nicename column for username match)
and Press edit.

On the editing screen, put your new password again the column password and Choose MD5 in left column FUNCTION

Now scroll down and save this password.

And that’s it. Go to your domain / wp-admin path and login with the new password you just saved.

What to do if you dont have phpMyAdmin?

You gotta have some kind of access to MySQL, so connect to it using the credentials inside wp-config.php file

Use the following command after replacing your details:

UPDATE `wppl_users` SET `user_pass` = 'e0a8aa81eb1762d529783cf587f6f422' WHERE `wppl_users`.`user_nicename` = 'admin';

If you remember the email address only, use:

UPDATE `wppl_users` SET `user_pass` = 'e0a8aa81eb1762d529783cf587f6f422' WHERE `wppl_users`.`user_email` = '[email protected]';

The above command will set your password to [email protected]. After this command you can login to wordpress admin panel and then reset your password to anything you want. Or use to generate md5 for any password string and replace it with e0a8aa81eb1762d529783cf587f6f422

Do NOT forget to replace “wppl_” with your table prefix (stored in wp-config.php file)

MySQL error 1449: The user specified as a definer does not exist

Why this error happens?

Most of the times, reason is that your database dump through command line or PhpMyAdmin or even other libraries can have SQL’s Definer statements. Now, as per MySQL’s Official Documentation:

The DEFINER clause specifies the MySQL account to be used when checking access privileges at routine execution time for routines that have the SQL SECURITY DEFINER characteristic.

MySQL Reference Manual v8.0

Solution: MySQL mysqldump create a safe backup to ensure no corruption

Use the following command to create backup of your mysql database. Put the command in terminal

mysqldump -hHOST -uUSERNAME -p DATABASE_NAME | sed -e 's/DEFINER[ ]*=[ ]*[^*]*\*/\*/' > BACKUP_NAME.sql

With gzip compression > backup

mysqldump -hHOST -uUSERNAME -p DATABASE_NAME | sed -e 's/DEFINER[ ]*=[ ]*[^*]*\*/\*/' | gzip > BACKUP_NAME.sql


How to tweak Magento 2 for two letter search in fulltext mode

The problem:

Magento 2 wont return any search results if the search token is 2 letters in length.


Alter MySQL conf file. Edit my.cnf file on your server
In CentOS, use command

nano /etc/my.cnf

and add the following lines:


Save using CTRL+x and then restart mysqld service.
Now we need to regenerate the index in order to get updated search results. Use the following SQL commands to regenerate:

Don’t forget to replace “jack_db1” with your database name

ALTER TABLE `jack_db1`.`catalogsearch_fulltext_scope1` DROP PRIMARY KEY, ADD PRIMARY KEY (`entity_id`, `attribute_id`) USING BTREE;
ALTER TABLE `jack_db1`.`catalogsearch_fulltext_scope1` DROP INDEX `FTI_FULLTEXT_DATA_INDEX`, ADD FULLTEXT `FTI_FULLTEXT_DATA_INDEX` (`data_index`);
ALTER TABLE `jack_db1`.`catalog_eav_attribute` DROP PRIMARY KEY, ADD PRIMARY KEY (`attribute_id`) USING BTREE;