WordPress Dashboard – Introduction by newbie

Dashboard Panel

When you will log into the administration area of your blog, you’ll see the WordPress Dashboard which will display the overview of the whole website.  You can customize your needs by using some quick links such as writing quick draft, replying to latest comment, etc.

Dashboard Menu

The WordPress Dashboard provides a navigation menu that contains some menu options such as posts, media library, pages, comments, appearance options, plugins, users, tools and settings on the left side.

Welcome Section

It includes the “Customize Your Site” button which allows customizing your WordPress theme. The center column provides some of the useful links such as creating a blog post, creating a page and view the front end of your website.

Quick Draft

The Quick Draft is a mini post editor which allows writing, saving and publishing a post from the admin dashboard. It includes the title for the draft, some notes about the draft and save it as a Draft.

WordPress News

The WordPress News widget displays the latest news such as latest software version, updates, alerts, news regarding the software etc. from the official WordPress blog.

Activity

The Activity widget includes latest comments on your blog, recent posts and recently published posts. It allows you to approve, disapprove, reply, edit, or delete a comment. It also allows you to move a comment to spam.

At a Glance

This section gives an overview of your blog’s posts, number of published posts and pages, and number of comments. When you click on these links, you will be taken to the respective screen. It displays the current version of running WordPress along with the currently running theme on the site.


How to install a new theme in WordPress using a compressed theme file

Follow these steps to install a new WordPress theme to your website using a compressed theme file(.zip,.tar,.rar etc):

Step 1: Open the wp-content folder in the root directory of WordPress and go to the themes folder.

Step 2: Upload the zip(or any other compressed file) theme file inside the theme folder.

Step 3: Go back to the theme folder, select the compressed theme file and click on extract.

Step 4: After the file is extracted you may still not see the extracted folder, so click on reload. Also, delete the zip file as it obsolete now.

Step 5: Now, go to the WordPress dashboard of your website and click on Appearance>Themes.

Step 6: You can now see your new theme in the installed themes section. Hover on your new theme and click Activate to activate the theme.

Congratulations you have finally installed and activated a new theme!

How to change WordPress user roles in MySQL database using PhpMyAdmin?

We will be editing the database rows using PhpMyAdmin tool given with cPanel by many hosting companies

You can change the WordPress user roles by following the given steps:

Step 1: Open phpMyAdmin on cPanel.

Step 2: Open the wp_usermeta or xxx_usermeta table in the database as highlighted. (wp_ is just prefix, your table prefix may be different)

wordpress tables in database

Step 3: In wp_usermeta table, you can find wp_capabilities under meta_key column.

User Roles in usermeta table

Step 4: The roles are saved in form of serialized PHP array. Change the user role you want to assign to the current user by changing the meta_value as:

Subscriber
a:1:{s:10:"subscriber";b:1;}

Contributor
a:1:{s:11:"contributor";b:1;}

Author
a:1:{s:6:"author";b:1;}

Editor
a:1:{s:6:"editor";b:1;}

Administrator
a:1:{s:13:"administrator";b:1;}

Magento File Directory

/app
The etc folder contains the di.xml configuration file
The di.xml file contains class mapping and interface preferences
Contains the design folder for themes.

/bin
The directory contains the magento file or a Command Line Interface script

/dev
Magento 2 testing and development tools are placed in this folder.

/lib
The internal and web subfolders are located here
The internal directory contains server-side libraries and several font files;
The web subfolder contains client-side libraries, jquery, modernizr, requirejs, prototype, scriptaculous

/pub
It should be set as your web root on the server
It contains all the publicly accessible files
index.php controller is also contained in the folder
pub also contains the error pages that will be displayed if your site is showing a 404 or 503 or another report page
Image uploads and imports will appear somewhere within pub/media.

/var
caches and generated classes are all located in the folder
the var folder includes cache, composer_home, generation, log, di, view_preprocessed, page_cache files

/vendor
the folder includes various packages that have been defined under composer.json
Marketplace modules and the core modules are all under vendor.
If you download something from the new Magento Marketplace.

Linux commands for SSH

  1. tar– to create archive files(.zip, .tar)

Syntax:
tar [options] [archive-file] [file or directory to be archived]

Options:
-c : Creates Archive
-x : Extract the archive
-f : creates archive with given filename
-t : displays or lists files in archived file
-u : archives and adds to an existing archive file
-v : Displays Verbose Information
-A : Concatenates the archive files
-z : zip, tells tar command that create tar file using gzip
-j : filter archive tar file using tbzip
-W : Verify a archive file
-r : update or add file or directory in already existed .tar file

2. curl – Transfers data from or to a server, using one of the protocols: HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, FTPS, SCP, SFTP, TFTP, DICT, TELNET, LDAP or FILE.

Syntax:
curl [options] [URL…]

3. service– The service command is used to run a System V init script. Usually all system V init scripts are stored in /etc/init.d directory and service command can be used to start, stop, and restart the daemons and other services under Linux.

Syntax:
service SCRIPT-Name COMMAND
The COMMAND can be at least start, stop, status, and restart.

4. netstat– The netstat command is used to display very detailed information about how your computer is communicating with other computers or network devices.

5. wget– Wget is the non-interactive network downloader which is used to download files from the server even when the user has not logged on the system and it can work in background without hindering the current process.

Syntax:
wget [option] [URL]

6. grep– The grep filter searches a file for a particular pattern of characters, and displays all lines that contain that pattern.

Syntax:
grep [options] pattern [files]

Options Description
-c : This prints only a count of the lines that match a pattern
-h : Display the matched lines, but do not display the filenames.
-i : Ignores, case for matching
-l : Displays list of a filenames only.
-n : Display the matched lines and their line numbers.
-v : This prints out all the lines that do not matches the pattern
-e exp : Specifies expression with this option. Can use multiple times.
-f file : Takes patterns from file, one per line.
-E : Treats pattern as an extended regular expression (ERE)
-w : Match whole word
-o : Print only the matched parts of a matching line,
with each such part on a separate output line.

7. ls – list directory contents
Syntax:
ls [OPTION]… [FILE]…

ls -l list with long format, show permissions
ls -la list long format including hidden files

8. cat – Concatenate and print the content of files.

Syntax:
cat [Options] [File]…

9. nano– GNU nano is a text editor for Unix-like computing systems or operating environments using a command line interface.

10. vi – vi is a screen-oriented text editor originally created for the Unix operating system.

11. cp – cp stands for copy. This command is used to copy files or group of files or directory.

Syntax:
cp [OPTION] Source Destination
cp [OPTION] Source Directory
cp [OPTION] Source-1 Source-2 Source-3 Source-n Directory

First and second syntax is used to copy Source file to Destination file or Directory.
Third syntax is used to copy multiple Sources(files) to Directory.

12. mv– mv stands for move. mv is used to move one or more files or directories from one place to another in file system

Syntax:
mv [Option] source destination

13. sudo– sudo (“superuser do”, or “switch user do”) allows a user with proper permissions to execute a command as another user, such as the superuser.

14. rm -rm stands for remove here. rm command is used to remove objects such as files, directories, symbolic links and so on from the file system
Syntax:
rm [OPTION]… FILE…

15. mkdir– make directories
Syntax-
mkdir [OPTION]… DIRECTORY…

16. ln -The ln command is a standard Unix command utility used to create a hard link or a symbolic link (symlink) to an existing file. The use of a hard link allows multiple filenames to be associated with the same file since a hard link points to the inode of a given file, the data of which is stored on disk.
Syntax:
ln [OPTIONS] TARGET… LINK|DIRECTORY

How to install wordpress on cPanel

WordPress is a free and open-source content management system (CMS) based on PHP and MySQL.Features include a plugin architecture and a template system.

Follow these steps to install WordPress:

Download WordPress

Download WordPress from this link:  https://wordpress.org/download/

Create Database

Create an empty database for WordPress and specify it’s username and password.

Set up Wizard

  • Step 1: Upload the downloaded compressed file on your website root directory and extract it.

  • Step 2: Open the url of your website and install WordPress.

 

  • Step 3: Specify the  Database Name, Username, Password and Database Host.

  • Step 4:  A confirmation message will appear after the database settings are validated. Click on ‘Run the Installation’ button.

  • Step 5:  Provide the administrative information needed for your WordPress website and Install WordPress.

  • Step 6: You have successfully installed WordPress and the final step is to log in, for which you will use the username and password entered at step 5.